Angular Variations of Color in Turbid Media—The Influence of Bulk Scattering on Goniochromism in Paper

Magnus Neuman1, Per Edström1, Mattias Andersson1,
Ludovic Coppel1,2, Ole Norberg1
1Mid Sweden University, 2Inneventia AB, Sweden
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The angular variations of color of a set of paper samples are experimentally assessed using goniophotometric measurements. The corresponding simulations are done using a radiative transfer based simulation tool, thus considering only the contribution of bulk scattering to the reflectance. It is seen that measurements and simulations agree and display the same characteristics, with the lightness increasing and the chroma decreasing as the observation polar angle increases. The decrease in chroma is larger the more dye the paper contains. Based on previous results about anisotropic reflectance from turbid media these findings are explained. The relative reflectance in large polar angles of wavelengths with strong absorption is higher than that of wavelengths with low absorption. This leads to a loss of chroma and color information in these angles. The increase in lightness is a result of the anisotropy affecting all wavelengths equally, which is the case for transmitting media and obliquely incident illumination. The only CGIV 2010 and MCS’10 Final Program and Proceedings xxiii case with no color variations of this kind is when a non-absorbing, non-transmitting medium is illuminated diffusely. The measured and simulated color differences are clearly large, and it is an open issue how angle resolved color should be handled in standard color calculations.